Grapes Crop Management and Diagnosis

VARIETIES DEVELOPED



Among hundreds of varieties available, only few of them have been commercially cultivated in different grape growing regions of India. Grape breeding in India started in different universities and research stations of India which resulted in development of several hybrids. Some of the hybrids developed at ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru exclusively for table purpose are Arka Kanchan, Arka Shyam, Arka Neelamani and Shweta Seedless.  India is among the first ten countries in the world in the production of grapes. About 80 per cent of the production comes from Maharashtra followed by Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The most grown variety of grapes is Thompson Seedless and its clones. Among coloured grapes, Bengaluru Blue, sharad seedless and crimson Seedless are popular. Two varieties, Nashik Grapes and Bengaluru Blue Grapes, have been given GI protection.

Grape VARIETIES

1. Bangalore Blue: A variety local to the surroundings of Bangalore (Karnataka). Possibly, a vinifera x labrusca hybrid, it is a heavy bearer and produces two crops in a year. Medium vigoured vines produce bunches that are small and compact. Berries are dark blackish - purple, seeded, small to medium in size, spherical with thick skin that separates easily from the pulp. Pulp is pale green coloured, TSS ranges from 18-20B and titrable acidity is around 0.8 to 0.9 per cent. It is tolerant to anthracnose disease, but susceptible to rust.

2.  Anab-e-Shahi: A popular variety of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Vines very heavy yielding and vigorous. Bunches are very large, slightly shouldered or conical in shape and well filled. Berries are late maturing, seeded, large to very large in size, oval, pale green to amber colored, low in total soluble solids (16-18B) and titrable acidity is around 0.45 to 0.58 per cent..

3.      Dilkush: It is a mutant of Anab-e-Shahi, which produces elongated golden yellow coloured berries. The area under this variety is increasing in recent years in place of Anab-e-shahi as it fetches premium price in market for its elongated berries.  

4.      Thompson Seedless: (Syn. Kishmish, Bedana, Sulthana): This is the most popular and commercially exploited variety in the world. In India it occupies more than 70% area of grape cultivation for both table and raisin purpose. Vines are vigorous, medium cropper, bunches small to medium in size, conical to cylindrical in shape, well filled and sometimes may be compact and hence needs chemical and mechanical berry thinning. Berries are seedless; ellipsoidal, pale green to amber coloured and of good quality with crisp pulp and T.S.S. around 22B. It requires about 130-150 days for ripening and continues to ripen in warmer seasons also. The majority of exported grapes from India consist of this variety. Tas-A-Ganesh and Sonaka are the clones of this variety which are commercially cultivated in Maharashtra and Karnataka states and they respond well to GA3 application.

5.      Gulabi: (Syn. Karachi, Pannerdrakshi, Muscat): Mostly grown in Tamil Nadu. A. seeded cultivar, medium vigour, medium to heavy yielder. Bunches are medium in size and loosely filled.  Berries are coloured, small, muscat flavoured, early maturing spherical with thick skin and have moderate keeping quality. T.S.S. is around 20B, but has a problem of uneven ripening of berries.

6.      Flame Seedless: It is an early variety, producing medium to small sized berries that are seedless, firm skinned and tender fleshed. It has a mild, sweet/tart flavour and when ripe, it turns to dark flame, rust red colour. Vines are vigorous, self-fruitful and are heavy bearers. Bunches are medium to large, conical and well filled. It is very early ripening variety and requires about 95-110 days for ripening after pruning. Ripening should coincide with cool climate for uniform colour.

7.      Red Globe: It is less to medium vigorous variety. Bunches are large, conical and well filled. Berries are tan-red, very large, round and seeded. They have crisp fleshy pulp, and a neutral flavour. It has good keeping quality with plump berries well attached to the stems. It is late ripening variety and takes more than 140 days from pruning to ripen. Its cultivation is becoming popular in southern Interior Karnataka (around Bengaluru and adjoining districts) because of mild tropical climatic conditions suitable for obtaining good colour during fruit ripening. It has good keeping quality and can be cold stored for at least 3 months. Fruit yield is about 20-25 tons per hectare.

8.      Sharad Seedless: A variety introduced from Russia, where it is popularly known as Kishmish chorni. It has become a highly accepted cultivar in western and southern India in recent years. Berries black and seedless, with crispy pulp and are very sweet (T.S.S. is around 22B).  It is medium duration variety which requires about 125-130 days for ripening. In recent years, some of the clonal selections made from this variety are gaining popularity and replacing the area under Sharad Seedless cultivation. Among several clones, Krishna Seedless and Jumbo Seedless are the clonal selections from this variety that produce elongated large sized berries and respond well to GA3 application. These varieties are becoming very popular in southern interior Karnataka regions because it’s cooler climate during fruit ripening which favours uniform colour development.

9.      Fantasy Seedless: Vines are very vigorous and requires high sunlight for adequate fruitfulness. This variety doesn’t require GA3 for thinning and sizing. Berries are medium bold, deep purple to black, seedless, thin skin and firm and obvate in shape. Clusters are medium in size, conical shape, and medium to loose with respect to cluster compactness. It is a mid to late ripening variety. This variety is susceptible for berry cracking. Hence, care must to be taken to manage irrigation and diseases particularly powdery mildew at the time of fruit ripening.