Pomegranate

Research studies

 

It is a small deciduous tree attaining 2 to 6 m in height having oblong or ovate leaves with a shining surface.  The production of this fruit has attracted several growers for its low cultivation cost, drought tolerance and export potential.

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Pomegranate Crop Management & Diagnosis!

 

Flowering

 

In tropical South and central Indian condition, there are three flowering seasons, viz., January-February (ambia bahar) ; June- July (mrig bahar) and September-October (hasta bahar). The choice of flowering/fruiting depends on availability of irrigation water, market demand and incidence of pest and diseases.

This is again the choice of the grower regarding which of the 3 bahars to consider taking into account the non availability of water during April–May, forced for rest in April–May is possible, Fruit cracking in June- July due to rain, farmers prefer mrig bahar, Bacterial nodal blight during rainy season and rainy, winter season crops - heavy than spring crop.

Process of bahar treatment
• Withhold the irrigation two months prior to the bahar
• In light sandy and shallow soils, withhold water for 4–5weeks
• Due to water stress, leaves show wilting and fall on the ground
• The trees are medium pruned 40-45 days after withholding irrigation.
• Give ethrel spray at 2 to 2.5 ml/l mixed with 5 g/l of DAP
• At this stage cover the roots with a mixture of soil and FYM and irrigate immediately.
• Apply the recommended doses of fertilizers immediately after pruning
• Consequently, new growth, profuse flowering and fruiting is observed
• Resume the normal irrigation.
• The fruits are ready for harvest 5 months after flowering.

Crop and grade regulation

A grown-up, well-managed tree at three years age gives 80–100 fruits annually, and increases by ten percent annually of which  

         8–10 % are of ‘A’ grade

         20–25% of ‘B’ grade,

         Remaining ‘C’ and ‘D’ grades, and cracked fruits.

Improve average grade by crop regulation.

• After the fruit set, do not allow fruits to develop in clusters and keep only solitary fruits.
• Allow flower set on inner/thicker shoots to develop in to fruits, remove those which are developed terminally on weaker shoots
• After getting set, remove all the flowers coming thereafter.

Operation to be done during pre pruning and pruning

    Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture 2 days before defoliation.

    Prune the twigs carefully

    Sterilize the secateurs with sodium hypochlorite  (2 to 3 ml/l)

    Defoliate with a mixture of ethrel (2 to 2.5 ml/l) + DAP 5g/l.

    Remove weeds and suckers

    Collect & burn fallen leaves /debris from the orchard

    Harrowing in interspaces is advocated.

    Apply full dose of well rotten FYM and P, 1/3rd N&K fertilizers + Micronutrients (ZnSO4, FeSO4, MnSO4 each 25g and 10g Borax (Boron) /tree)+ Neem Cake 1-1.5 kg / tree + Vermicompost 2 kg/tree+ Phorate10G @25g/tree or Carbofuran 3G at 40g/tree in shallow trench or ring (15-20 cm wide of 8-10cm depth) at 45-60cm away from the stem, cover the trenches properly with soil and give light irrigation immediately after fertilizer application.

    After 45 days  apply 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen + 1/3rd dose of potash

    After 90 days apply 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen + 1/3rd dose of potash


Pruned palnt before leaf fall

Pruned palnt after leaf fall

Remove the pruned wood from the field
 
Retain flowers originating on stronger shoots

 

The females can be identified by the miniature fruit / bulged structure at the flower base which is the swollen ovary at the base of the bloom. Normally, the male flowers show up first, followed by the females in about 7 to 10 days. The ratio on plants is about 10 to 1 male to female.

 


Male and female flowers

Male and female flowers cut open
 

 

 

 
 
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