Papaya Cultivation..

soil and climate

Soil and climatic requirements

Papaya is basically a tropical plant, which requires not only high temperature but also ample sunshine and adequate moisture in the soil and is highly sensitive to frost.



In India, a large number of papaya varieties are cultivated.



Papaya is generally propagated by seeds obtained through controlled pollination.


Nutrient Management

For papaya, fertilizers should be applied once in every two months.



Papaya needs regular water for its rapid fruit development and yield.



In India, a large number of papaya varieties are cultivated. There are two basic types of varieties - ‘dioecious’ that produce separate female and male plants and ‘gynodioecious’ that produce female and hermaphrodite plants.

IIHR varieties in papaya

Arka Prabhath: It is from the cross (Surya x Tainung-1) x Local Dwarf. It is gynodioecious in nature. The plants are semi-vigorous and bearing starts at a lower height (60-70 cm). Since the variety is gynodioecious, seed production is easy, as bagging of bisexual flowers ensures true to type plants. The pulp is firm (5.9 kg/cm2) and colour is deep pink. The fruit weight on an average is 900-1200 g, the TSS is 13-14°Brix and yield per plant is 90-100 kg. The keeping quality is good.

Arka Surya: It is the offspring of Sunrise Solo x Pink Flesh Sweet. It was selected from F14 generation. Hence, seeds can be produced by bagging the hermaphrodite flowers or by crossing the female flowers with hermaphrodite flowers. The plant is gynodioecious in nature with no male plants. Fruits resemble Sunrise Solo in shape. The plants are shorter compared to Solo. Skin is smooth, becomes uniformly yellow in colour on ripening. Fruits are medium in size of about 600 – 800 g with a small fruit cavity. Pulp is about 3 – 3.5 cm thick, deep red in colour and sweet with a TSS of 13.5 – 15°Brix. It does not have the odd flavour. Keeping quality of fruits is good. Yield per plant is approximately 55 – 65 kg (60 – 65 t/acre).

Important varieties that are grown in different states are given below:



Andhra Pradesh

Taiwanese lines, Arka Surya and Arka Prabhath


Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Majesty, Pusa Nanha, Pusa Giant, Pusa Delicious and Ranchi


Coorg Honey Dew, Sunrise Solo, CO.3, CO.4, Arka Surya, Arka    Prabhath and Taiwanese lines.


Taiwanese lines.


Coorg Honey Dew, Surya, Washington, Ranchi, Pusa Dwarf and Pusa Delicious.

Tamil Nadu

CO.2, CO.5, CO.6, CO.7, CO.8, Arka Surya, Arka    Prabhath, Coorg Honey Dew and Taiwanese lines.

Uttar Pradesh

Coorg Honey Dew, Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Delicious, CO.1, CO.5 and Barwani Red.


The characteristic features of commercially important varieties are briefed below: 

Washington: it is hardy and dioecious in nature, petioles are purple pigmented and fruits are round to ovate in shape and medium sized, weighing 1 kg to 1.2 kg on an average with yellow pulp, 120Brix TSS, large cavity and moderate keeping quality. It yields about 60 kg/ plant.

Barwani Red: It is a dioecious type similar to Washington, but is dwarf and devoid of purple colour and yields about 40 kg /plant. The fruits weigh about 0.5 to 2 kg with 11.00 Brix TSS, large fruit cavity and good keeping quality.

Coorg Honey Dew:  It is a gynodiocious, semi dwarf selection from Honey Dew used for both table purpose and papain extraction. Fruits are big weighing 1.75 to 2 kg, dark green in colour with slight ridging skin surface, elongated and oval from hermaphrodite trees and ovoid from female trees, with 13.50 Brix TSS, yellow pulp, large cavity and poor keeping quality.

CO.1: It is a dioecious variety evolved by sibmating the cultivar Ranchi over a period of eight years at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The plant is semi-vigorous and the first fruiting takes place at the height of 60-75 cm. Fruits are medium to big, round with flattened base slight nipple and ridges present at the apex, weighing around 1.5 kg. Pulp is orange yellow in colour, medium firm, moderately juicy, without papain odour and keeping quality is good with 120 Brix TSS. Yields about 50-60 fruits/ tree in a period of 20 months from planting.

CO.2: A dioecious selection from local type for papain extraction released from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Fruits are large, weighing about 1.5 kg to 2.5 kg. Pulp is orange coloured, soft to firm and moderately juicy with 13.5 to 14.5oBrix TSS. It yields about 80-100 fruits / tree and latex yield per fruit is 25-30 g.

CO.3: This is a gynodioecious hybrid for table purpose from the cross of CO2 × Sunrise Solo released from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Fruits are pyriform, smooth, weighing about 800g and firm with medium cavity, red pulp, 13.5oBrix TSS and good keeping quality. It yields 90-120 fruits each weighing 450-500 g.

CO.4 : This is dioecious variety having purple coloration in all parts of the plant, released by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University from the cross of CO1 x Washington. The fruit is firm, medium sized weighing about 1.3 to 1.5 kg and round with yellow pulp, medium cavity and 13oBrix TSS.  Trees give 80 fruits / plant over a period of two years.

CO.5 : It is a selection by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore for high papain content from the variety Washington. It is a dioecious variety producing fruits of about 1.5 kg with yellow and moderately soft pulp. It gives about 80 kg fruits / plant in two years with an average yield of 1500 to 1600 kg dried papain per hectare. 

CO.6 : It is a dioecious, dwarf selection from Giant papaya made at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, useful for table purpose and papain extraction. It produces large sized fruits of 2 kg having large cavity. Pulp is yellow and moderately firm with 120Brix TSS. It yields 80-100 fruits / tree. 

 CO.7 : It is a gynodioecious hybrid developed through multiple crosses and purified for over four years. The parents are Pusa Delicious , CO3, Coorg Honey Dew and CP. 85, released by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Fruits weigh about 1.15 kg oblong with small cavity, red pulp and 16.70Brix TSS. It yields about 98 fruits / tree and about 340 tons / hectare for 28 months cropping period.  

 Pusa Majesty : This is a gynodioecious line developed at IARI Regional Research Station, Pusa, in Bihar by sibmating the variety Ranchi. It starts bearing at the height of 48 cm within 245 days of planting. The average fruit weight is around 1 to 1.5 kg. The fruit has firm pulp of 3.5 cm thickness with orange colour and 9o Brix TSS and cavity of 17 x 9 cm.  It has good shelf life and is suitable for long distance transport.  It yields about 38 kg / plant. 

Pusa Giant: It is a dioecious selection developed by sibmating the variety Ranchi. Plants are highly vigorous bearing first fruit at one meter height and can stand storm and windy conditions well. Fruits weigh 2 to 3 kg with yellow, moderately firm 5 cm thick pulp having 7 to 8.5oBrix TSS and 18 x 10 cm cavity.  It yields about 40 kg /plant.

Pusa Delicious: It is a gynodioecious, high yielding variety developed by sibmating the variety Ranchi. Plants are medium sized with first fruiting at 80 cm height, 253 days after planting. Fruits weigh1 to 2 kg and have distinct flavor and moderate keeping quality. Pulp is deep orange, 4 cm thick with 10 to 13oBrix TSS while seed cavity is 14 × 8 cm. It yields about 41 kg / plant.

Pusa Dwarf: This is a dioecious selection from the variety Ranchi developed by sibmating. Plants are dwarf in stature bearing fruit at the height of 40 cm, hence suitable for high density planting and kitchen garden. Fruits are oval round, medium sized, weighing about 0.5 to 1 kg. Pulp is yellow, moderately firm, 3.5 cm thick and cavity is 12 x 8 cm. TSS is between 6.5 to 8oBrix.  It yields about 40 kg / plant.

Pusa Nanha : It is a dioecious dwarf mutant having 106 cm height, bearing fruit at 30 cm height suited for high density planting (6.400 plants per hectare) and pot cultivation and tolerant to water logging. Fruits are medium sized, round to ovate in shape with thin, yellow pulp having 8oBrix TSS and low cavity. It yields about 63 tons / hectare and about 10.1 kg /plant.

Sunrise Solo: It is an improved variety from Solo developed in Hawaii. The pulp is red in colour, with mild flavour and TSS of 15.5 per cent under good growing conditions. The fruits weigh about 400 to 500 g and are pear shaped and smooth in appearance.  It yields about 20 kg / plant.

 Arka Surya: It is an advanced generation hybrid from the cross Sunrise Solo x Pink Pulp Sweet. The fruits are medium sized weighing about 600-800g with good keeping quality. The pulp is deep pink and firm with 13-14°Brix TSS. Fruit yield is 60 - 70 kg / plant for 28 months cropping period.

Arka Prabhath: It is an advanced generation hybrid from the cross (Surya x Tainung-1) x Local Dwarf). The fruits are big sized weighing 900-1200 g, firm and deep pink in colour with TSS of 13-14oBrix and good keeping quality. The average yield is 90 - 100 kg / plant.

CO.8: This is a red pulp dioecious variety developed by initial selective hybridization of CO.2 (yellow pulped) with red anthered male followed by intermating and repeated selection in segregating population for red pulp colour. Fruits are suitable for dessert purpose, pulping, processing (RTS, jam, tutti-fruity) and papain industry (Papain activity 138TU/mg).The fruits are big, oblong, weighing an average of 1.5-2.0 kg/fruit with a TSS of 13.5% with prominent apex. The tree can be economically maintained for 20-22 months under favourable condition with a yield potential of 230 t/ha when planted at a spacing of 1.8 x 1.8m.